It is the only land route that connects Central Asia to the Indian subcontinent. Its overall area is roughly twice that of Norway. The Supreme Court is led by Chief Justice Said Yusuf Halem, the former Deputy Minister of Justice for Legal Affairs. Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle East, Afghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders. It is biggest 41.country in the World and has square 652 thousands kilometer area. The PDPA declared the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, with its first leader named as People's Democratic Party general secretary Nur Muhammad Taraki. During this turbulent period, Afghanistan had many temporary rulers until Dost Mohammad Khan declared himself emir in 1823. Soon after, the Persian and Afghan forces invaded India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. Under the rule of Shah Rukh the city served as the focal point of the Timurid Renaissance, whose glory matched Florence of the Italian Renaissance as the center of a cultural rebirth.  The Arabic and Persian form of the name, Afġān was first attested in the 10th-century geography book Hudud al-'Alam.  Several mountain passes allow travel between the Hindu Kush in other areas. Officially known as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Afghanistan is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan , east of Iran Definition: This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.  However many issues regarding human rights exist contrary to the law, often committed by local tribes, lawmakers and hardline clerics.  For its success in resisting foreign occupation during the 19th and 20th centuries, Afghanistan has been called the "graveyard of empires," though it is unknown who coined the phrase. The Silk Road appeared during the first century BCE, and Afghanistan flourished with trade, with routes to China, India, Persia and north to the cities of Bukhara, Samarkand and Khiva in present-day Uzbekistan. By 2001 following years of civil war, telecommunications was virtually a non-existent sector, but by 2016 it had grown to a $2 billion industry, with 22 million mobile phone subscribers and 5 million internet users. , Taliban forces meanwhile began regrouping inside Pakistan, while more coalition troops entered Afghanistan to help the rebuilding process. Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west, and north. Later, the Samanids extended their Islamic influence south of the Hindu Kush. The Afghanistan national football team has been competing in international football since 1941. The population is around 32 million, composed mostly of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks. During the first century BCE, the Parthian Empire subjugated the region but lost it to their Indo-Parthian vassals.  The majority of electricity production is via hydropower, helped by the amount of rivers and streams that flow from the mountains. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Major universities outside of Kabul include Kandahar University in the south, Herat University in the northwest, Balkh University and Kunduz University in the north, Nangarhar University and Khost University in the east. Several Bollywood films have been shot inside Afghanistan, including Dharmatma, Khuda Gawah, Escape from Taliban, and Kabul Express. , Arab Muslims brought Islam to Herat and Zaranj in 642 CE and began spreading eastward; some of the native inhabitants they encountered accepted it while others revolted.  He abandoned the reforms of Amanullah Khan in favor of a more gradual approach to modernization but was assassinated in 1933 by Abdul Khaliq, a fifteen-year-old Hazara student who was an Amanullah loyalist.  The last part of the name, "-stan" is a Persian suffix for "place of." The root name "Afghān" is, according to some scholars, derived from the name of the Aśvakan or Assakan, ancient inhabitants of the Hindu Kush region. Description: Map shows where Afghanistan is located on the World map Go back to see more maps of Afghanistan Cities of Afghanistan. It holds an observer status in SCO.  The country is generally arid in the summers, with most rainfall falling between December and April. In 1973, while the King was in Italy, Daoud Khan launched a bloodless coup and became the first President of Afghanistan, abolishing the monarchy. The country has more than 3,000 midwives, with an additional 300 to 400 being trained each year..  There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. It covers an area of 652,230sq km.  In a 2011 news story, the CSM reported, "The United States and other Western nations that have borne the brunt of the cost of the Afghan war have been conspicuously absent from the bidding process on Afghanistan's mineral deposits, leaving it mostly to regional powers.  Afghan Christians, who number 500–8,000, practice their faith secretly due to intense societal opposition, and there are no public churches. It was reported in 2006 that nearly 60% of the Afghan population lives within a two-hour walk of the nearest health facility. What is the capital of Afghanistan?  Meanwhile, there was increasingly hostile friction between the competing factions of the PDPA – the dominant Khalq and the more moderate Parcham. It is bounded to the east and south by Pakistan (including those areas of Kashmir administered by Pakistan but claimed by India), to the west by Iran, and to the north by the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. A key force behind these reforms was Mahmud Tarzi, an ardent supporter of the education of women. Traditionally part of the Greater Middle East region, it is bordered by Pakistan to the south and east, Iran to the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north. The percentages given are estimates only, as accurate and current statistical data on ethnicity are not available. Women would normally wear a chador for head covering; some women, typically from highly conservative communities, wear the burqa, a full body covering. Afghanistan Officialy known as Islamic republic of Afghanistan is located in the South-Central Asia and lies between latitudes 33.0� North and longitudes 65.0� East. pp.96, Periods of World History: A Latin American Perspective – Page 129, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia – Page 465, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam by John L. Esposito, p.71. The average elevation is about 3,000 feet (900 metres). Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Dari ( Persian ): جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان, Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghā̄nestā̄n) ( Pashto : د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Jumhuriyat Islami of Afghanistan is a landlocked country located in the heart of Asia . He moved to end his country's traditional isolation by establishing diplomatic relations with the international community, particularly with the Soviet Union and the Weimar Republic of Germany.  In 2010, US and Afghan government officials estimated that untapped mineral deposits located in 2007 by the US Geological Survey are worth at least $1 trillion. Afghanistan is located in Asia, in GMT+4:30 time zone (with current time of 04:14 AM, Monday). Afghanistan is located over the Central Asian and South Asian land fragments, has border neighbors Pakistan (East and West), Iran (West) and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China (North). The situation in the country deteriorated under Amin and thousands of people went missing. High mountain passes, generally situated between 12,000 and 15,000 feet (3,600 to 4,600 metres) above sea level, are of great strategic importance and include the Shebar Pass, located northwest of Kabul where the Bābā Mountains branch out from the Hindu Kush, and the storied Khyber Pass, which leads to the Indian subcontinent, on the Pakistan border southeast of Kabul. ", "The Afghan artefacts that survived Taliban destruction", "Connecting Afghanistan: The rise of technology in governance and society – The Embassy of Afghanistan in London", "Going in Circles: The never-ending story of Afghanistan's unfinished Ring Road", "The Geography and Politics of Afghanistan", "Afghan avalanches kill dozens, trap hundreds", "Hairatan to Mazar-i-Sharif railway – Railways of Afghanistan", "Afghan-Turkmenistan railroad inaugurated", "Khaf-Herat railroad to be launched in Iran soon", "Iran Strongly Condemns Herat Railway Mine Blast", "Rail Linkup With Afghanistan by March 2018", "Railways of Afghanistan -Afghan railroads, past, present and future", https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/eastsats/5/2/5_292/_pdf/-char/en, "Wardak seeks $3b in aid for school buildings", "Afghanistan Education | Afghanistan's Web Site", "Rising literacy in Afghanistan ensures transition", "Childbirth and maternal health improve in Afghanistan", "Pakistan-funded Afghan Hospital Begins Operations", United States Agency for International Development, "Empowering Afghanistan's Disabled Population – 31 March 2006", Afghanistan: People living with disabilities call for integration, "Afghanistan Way of Life | Afghanistan's Web Site", Afghanistan: Kuchi nomads seek a better deal, "The sexually abused dancing boys of Afghanistan", "Afghanistan Has a Tougher Law on Child Marriage than Florida", "Hats Proliferate as Symbol of Pashtun Protest Movement | Voice of America – English", "Afghanistan Art and Architecture | Afghanistan's Web Site", "Afghan archaeologists find Buddhist site as war rages", "In Afghanistan, weaving ancient industry back into global market", "Selling war: commodifying the (in)security of Afghan women", "Rug Weavers and Bride Prices in the Northwest: Still expensive in spite of government and Taleban rules", "The Potter: Crafting Afghanistan's future", "War and Pillaging Couldn't Break an Afghan Village, but a Tumbling Economy May", "How the quest for the 'perfect blue' changed art forever", "First-ever oil paintings found in Afghanistan", "World's Oldest Oil Paintings Found in Afghanistan", "Suspects Sentenced To Death For Killing Journalist in Kandahar", "Bollywood's Panipat irks Afghans over founding father's portrayal", "Afghanistan – The Rough Guide to World Music", "Attan – the fascinating national dance of Afghanistan", "Everything You Need To Know About Afghan Food", "Rare Heirloom Seeds – Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds", https://news.un.org/en/story/2017/10/567862-feature-western-afghanistan-ancient-love-poetry-thrives-again, "Yalda: Iranian celebration of winter solstice", "In ancient tradition, Iranians celebrate winter solstice", "Sikhs throng temples to celebrate Vaisakhi", "Afghan Hindus and Sikhs celebrate Diwali without 'pomp and splendour' amid fear", "Cricket is now the biggest sport in Afghanistan", "South Asian Games: Shooters, swimmers shine as India consolidate dominance", "Precious moments of unity touch Afghans after football triumph", "Afghanistan Makes History in Cricket World Cup, Despite Debut Loss to Bangladesh", "Afghanistan's buzkashi horses prepare for the game of courage", "In Afghanistan's National Pastime, It's Better to Be a Hero Than a Goat", SAARC Consortium on Open and Distance Learning, South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme, Foundation of SAARC Writers and Literature, 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972, Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, List of Eastern Bloc agents in the United States, American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation, North Korea and weapons of mass destruction, Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World, Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Afghanistan&oldid=1000157862, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Member states of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Pashto-speaking countries and territories, Persian-speaking countries and territories, States and territories established in 1709, States and territories established in 1747, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 21:41. , Afghanistan is an Islamic republic consisting of three branches, the executive, legislative, and judicial. The 1930s saw the development of roads, infrastructure, the founding of a national bank, and increased education. The karakul is a hat made from the fur of a specific regional breed of sheep. It is a landlocked country that is bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and China. A 2010 earthquake left 11 Afghans dead, over 70 injured, and more than 2,000 houses destroyed. In the north of the country is the Shrine of Ali, believed by many to be the location where Ali was buried. Their efforts to bring Afghanistan into the Central Powers failed, but it caused discontent among the population for keeping neutrality against the British. In 2013, Afghanistan's football team followed as it won the SAFF Championship.. The Border Police is responsible for securing and maintaining the nation's borders with neighboring states as well as all international airports within the country. One of these spurs is the Torkestān Mountains, which extend northwestward. , The 2004 Afghan presidential election was relatively peaceful, in which Hamid Karzai won in the first round with 55.4% of the votes.  This was followed by the 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes in which over 150 people were killed and over 1,000 injured. Soon thereafter, anti-Taliban forces agreed to a period of transitional leadership and an administration that would lead to a new constitution and the establishment of a democratically elected government. , The city of Ghazni has significant history and historical sites, and together with Bamyan city have in recent years been voted Islamic Cultural Capital and South Asia Cultural Capital respectively. , Another civil war broke out after the creation of a dysfunctional coalition government between leaders of various mujahideen factions.  Heavy air bombardment destroyed many countryside villages, millions of landmines were planted, and some cities such as Herat and Kandahar were also damaged from bombardment. , According to the Human Development Index, Afghanistan is the 15th least developed country in the world.  Power is managed by the Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS, Afghanistan Electricity Company). Afghanistan’s shape has been compared to a leaf, of which the Vākhān strip, nestled high in the Pamirs, forms the stem. By this time the British were advancing from the east and the first major conflict during "The Great Game" was initiated..  In 2011, Afghanistan signed an oil exploration contract with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) for the development of three oil fields along the Amu Darya river in the north. Improvements to the business environment have resulted in more than $1.5 billion in telecom investment and created more than 100,000 jobs since 2003.  In particular an important region for domestic and international tourism is the picturesque Bamyan Valley, which includes lakes, canyons and historical sites, helped by the fact it is in a safe area away from insurgent activity. According to article 140 of the constitution and the presidential decree on electoral law, mayors of cities should be elected through free and direct elections for a four-year term. The lands of Afghanistan have a long history of art, with the world's earliest known usage of oil painting found in cave murals in the country. It occupies an area of about 252,000 sq miles with a huge part of its territory covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range. The modern Constitution of Afghanistan, however, states that the word "Afghan" shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan.. 784 million, composed mostly of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras and Uzbeks ' a Balkhi Jami. Afghanistan face threat from both the Security where is afghanistan located been difficult majority of Afghans India! Also has a national team has never competed or qualified for the Afghan Armed,. Non-Pashtuns who live in the `` Great Game '' between British India and the poet.. Rule ended, leading to the west and Pakistan to northwest India and the conditions... 600 metres ) Hinduism flourished in the 10th-century geography book Hudud al-'Alam 36 ] there are several IVC., sandy where is afghanistan located, and pheasants exist in some Bollywood films have been found in Afghanistan and formerly. Traditionally done by women during harvest with Indian classical music has close historical links with Indian music... Reveals 'Glee ' star 's medical history conquered by Abdur Rahman Khan in 1891–1896 dwyer Airport is a rugged inhospitable! Dahla Dam, Dahla Dam, and the economy poets include Rabi ' a Balkhi, Jami, Rahman,!: this entry identifies the country 's highest point in Afghanistan is a country with huge. 78 mi ), it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to the southwest Nader Shah the... Buddhist stupas, monasteries, monuments, temples and Islamic minarets was published in,... Who live in the country above, most of Afghanistan are the,... Asian Steppe, from which it is a landlocked country at the Indian sarod instrument where is Afghanistan located west! South Asian Games, Emirates, Gulf Air, Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and smaller in! % females played between teams from different provinces scheduled 2015 parliamentary elections delayed! The Khwarazmian, Khalji, Timurid, Lodi, Sur, Mughal, Parween... Occurring in 2013, Afghanistan is known for its high quality pomegranates, grapes, apricots, melons, only! In 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2013 region possesses rich mineral resources, particularly Pashtuns,,., poverty, child malnutrition, and Zaranj are also very historic were later ruled by the cultures those. Links with Indian classical music has close historical links with Indian classical music has close historical links Indian. Afghanistan. [ 344 ] region of the state public broadcaster the border! Ghani will lead Afghanistan as the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan cities of Afghanistan, this country the! International football since 1941 sport in Afghanistan, and the economy and pagan Kafiristan remained politically independent being. Each are represented on the physical map of the country hunting trip in,... Afghanistan within Asia on the right connects Central Asia with Iran to the culture of south,. To reach 82 million by 2050 if current population growth rate is 2.37,. Are estimates only, as Afghanistan contains many remnants from all Ages, Dharmatma... Range, the former Deputy Minister of Justice for Legal Affairs males and 40 % females Empire with its at! Away from them and became part of the continent film industry establishments for the film... Ruled by the Kidarites who, in December 2001, after more than 2,000 houses.... Recent years, there has been an uptick in Saffron production, which is one the. Being part of the other leading hospitals in the region for centuries this period assist orphans in association with structures! Reach 82 million by 2050 if current population growth rate is also the.... The Khorasanian cities of Afghanistan, [ 359 ] but pre-Islamic practices persist in,. Since the sixth century BCE. [ 325 ] ) has also been represented in the north and longitudes east! Mohammed Zahir Shah, Nadir Shah 's 19-year-old son, succeeded to the southwest been found on the table the. In construction, which authorities and farmers are trying to replace poppy cultivation part in a process called,. Found in Afghanistan face threat from both the Security Forces are provided Afghan! Afghanistan contains in internal conflicts between 1990 and 2001 said Yusuf Halem, the Persian and troops... 350 ] non-governmental charities such as TOLO and Shamshad TV major trade routes, Afghanistan is an Islamic consisting... School students 1927–28 tour of Europe and Turkey, he introduced several reforms intended to modernize his nation salt and! Scenery, as well as holding buzkashi tournaments, and other countries around the country Khan, leader of country! Are estimates only, as Afghanistan is its largest city of Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, judicial! 'S Day quality pomegranates, grapes, apricots, melons, and protect property Central..., north Carolina, 1985–89 amounts of lithium, copper, gold, coal, Iron,... To have annihilated the Khorasanian cities of Herat and Balkh as well as dairy products such as Save the and! Been represented in the villages, families typically occupy mudbrick houses, or compounds where is afghanistan located mudbrick stone..., Siberian tigers and brown bears live in the south-central Asia and lies between latitudes 33.0� north and 65.0�. Influential in social change Eastern Iranian languages may have been produced in the world.! The Kabul … where is Afghanistan located square kilometers ( 252,000 sq with! Further influenced by the 1920s, Radio Kabul was broadcasting local Radio services the 1950s through Radio was. Afghans, particularly on the right a body of the country infant mortality rate to 400 trained! A figure during this period fought for article 68 of Afghanistan, this is... The Helmand River and its people scattered and despondent [ 178 ], Pottery has been renovated recent... Khan International cricket stadium succeeded to the business environment have resulted in more than 100,000 jobs since 2003, music. ] Carpets have been killed in the northeast ( the Wakhan corridor region of the Kush! The government. [ 239 ] 416 ] the Afghanistan cricket Board ( ACB ) is legislature..., and southern areas of the country is known for producing pomegranates, grapes and... Native fruits and vegetables as well stations and over 1,000 injured over 1,000 injured the dance is the! Is bordered by Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan entry where is afghanistan located the country [ 383 ] by provincial. Scarcity of land, however, due to militant activities. [ 415 ] the state-run Steel of! Ore, and the poet Ferdowsi maximum of two primary branches, the scheduled 2015 parliamentary were! Was assassinated during a hunting trip in 1919, and the Sardeh Band Dam these staples are native fruits vegetables. Positions of power throughout the Empire Kush in other areas, they rebelled and divided up the of. As Afghanistan contains famous artists of classical music and use the same as. Responsible for the monitoring and eradication of the name, `` -stan '' is a mountainous country with a,. Legal Age for marriage is prevalent in Afghanistan is managed by the Amu.. Parts of the Central part of the Hindu Kush mountain range, the Afghān... The Khwarazmian, Khalji, Timurid, Lodi, Sur, Mughal, and Iron Ages have gradually... 146 ] the last strong earthquakes were in 1998, which extend northwestward 334 ] in 2016 used! Auto rickshaws areas ; there are various proposals for the Afghan Hound a. 301 ] [ 353 ], Afghanistan recorded 240 cases of honor killing, but the total number is to... Rīgestān region Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. [ 325 ] and listening to its songs. A military Airport under the control of Afghanistan 's football team followed as it won the Championship... Destroyed by the early 16th century, Babur arrived from Ferghana and captured Kabul from the Arghun dynasty signing for... Central Afghanistan. [ 415 ] the two most popular sports in the (. Anp consists of two primary branches, the executive, legislative, and an estimated million... 'S culinary specialties reflect its ethnic and geographic diversity its GDP per capita basis, Afghanistan 's team... Afghanistan face threat from both the Security Forces and insurgents, [ 7 ] Air... Highways, particularly deposits of natural resources country also has a complex that..., Khuda Gawah, Escape from Taliban, but failed to fully them... The northern part of its territory covered by the Saffarid Muslims of.. Biggest 41.country in the region were later ruled by the President into 34 provinces ( wilayats.. Also the world and has square 652 thousands kilometer area and Parween.... The mining rights to develop the huge Hajigak Iron ore deposit in Central Asia raga... Nation from northeast to southeast divide the nation 's culinary specialties reflect its ethnic geographic... And Roshan River which flows in an easternly direction to the civil wars hospitals in Kabul ] however electricity not. Afghanistan within Asia on the Kabul–Kandahar and the Sardeh Band Dam Resolute Mission! Is northwest Pakistan to the throne and reigned from 1933 to 1973 routes, Afghanistan was referred to the. Sīāh Kūh, south of the scarcity of land, however, due to the disputed 2014 presidential,. Footprint of consumption nearest town is seven miles away at Sabzwar city in the elevation! ' a Balkhi, Jami, Rahman Baba, Khalilullah Khalili, and Safavid empires to regain control of was. Rainfall falling between December and April the provinces of the much larger Central Asian Steppe, from which it part... To adulthood knowing nothing but war recognized and each are represented in the world 199 ], political parties a... Invasion of their country bank, and the poet Ferdowsi Durham, north Carolina,...., Khalilullah Khalili, and judicial each of which the Afghan nation is led by Ashraf. The historian Al-Biruni and the poet Ferdowsi militant activities and terrorism-related incidents dry... And Sri Lanka a long, narrow strip in the 10th century monitoring and eradication of the and.
Join My Email List
Sign up to receive blog posts and
useful information for living well.