Understandably, the arrangement created considerable tensions between traditional and imposed leaderships. Close to 85% of the population is still mainly engaged in traditional agriculture. He named this territory "Ilhas dos Papuas" (Biskup, Jinks & Nelson, 1968:18). In recent years, the traditional right to the land has been challenged, as the government now claims the right of ownership to the nation's natural resources, especially: minerals like gold and copper (Connell, 1992); oil and gas (MacPherson, 1992); forests (Taylor, 1992); and fish (Waugh 1992). PNG is a land of many contrasts--many languages, many tribes and many cultures. To disseminate otherwise or republish, requries written permission. It is not surprising, therefore, that the current economies of the newly independent nations in Latin America (Sweezy, 1992), Africa, (Patnaik, 1990) Asia (Sweezy, 1992) and the Pacific (Luteru, 1991) continue to depend heavily on the international financial institutions such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Asian Development Bank (ADB) and multi-national corporations. Stage 2 (the pre-conditions for take off) which include the introduction of ideas for economic progress, involving education, entrepreneurship and the expansion of a commercial infrastructure. Without stipulating at this point anything too weighty or too precise, this can also certainly seem to apply to man and his social situations. The administrative division of the country into regions, provinces and districts that had been established by the German colonial authorities has also remained intact. A number of District Advisory Councils were also created to involve the indigenous people in the development of their areas, but these too experienced similar difficulties. On the one hand, much of the population has been exposed to a Western society which has many of the features of the Space Age. Australia was obliged to promote this principle. Local societies have undergone--and continue to experience--quite profound internal changes as a result of socio-economic developments, including processes of class formation. In terms of this linear view of history (Said, 1985), the people of PNG were primitive and could be controlled in much the same way as animals and physical objects. The colonised are assumed to become responsible for making their own decisions over issues which affect their livelihood. Dependency theory thus emerged as a reaction to modernisation theory and is largely based on the experiences of the Third World countries, in particular those in Latin America. It rests on an historical narrative in which the notions of progress and development are assumed to have an essential meaning. some Western education, an African had a chance at a lifestyle that up to that time he or she could only read about in Western school textbooks. The fast-flowing meandering rivers such as the Sepik and Fly, are another characteristic of this land. The children who have become educated in western style education have mostly moved away from the communities to which they once belonged. Annexed lands meant an opportunity to exploit natural resources such as timber, minerals and fish with the use of recruited natives to work in the plantations, factories and mines. It was not that the administration was not interested in allowing indigenous participation, but instead it operated on the principles of administrative convenience. These traditional attitudes towards land are coming increasingly into conflict with the monetised society which regards land as an input into production. The Proclamation that governed British occupation in Papua emphasised an ideology of protectionism (Hastings, 1973:45). A passage between New Britain and Umboi Island is named after him. For example, expatriates such as Bruce Jeffcot, Karl Stack, Tim Neville, Barry Holloway and Peter Barker have all held ministries in post-independence PNG governments. , Papua New Guinea. And yet, many of the laws that affect people are enacted not by the tribes but introduced and enacted by a new political institution called the Parliament. For us to be completely landless is a nightmare with no dollar in the pocket, dollar in the bank with allay; we are threatened people". The Act created an Executive Council which had three members, all appointed by the Australian Government. Referring to the act of cultural dominance as "cultural imperialism", Martin Carnoy (1978) argues that in cultural terms colonialism invariably invokes the assumptions of racial superiority of one "race" over another, and can thus be considered as a form of racism. The assimilation of many western ideas is evident in the changing lifestyles of the people, many of whom now build and live in permanent buildings, in well-furnished western houses, and now also watch television beamed into their homes from Cairns in Northern Queensland. What began as a dispute among disgruntled landowners quickly escalated into armed warfare between Papua New Guinea Defence Force and the secessionist Bougainville Revolution Army. In most colonised countries, this has resulted in the formation of a dual or mixed economy (Brookfield, 1972). The difficulty members have rationalising their own expectations with those of their electors is evident in one debate after another ... A parliamentarian expresses this concern in the following terms: When the people elect me to parliament, they think I own the Bank of PNG. The theoretical literature surrounding it is littered with controversy (Drakakis-Smith, 1992). Citizenship was offered to Algerians who converted to Christianity and had attained a university education. Land and the plants and animals it supports occupy the central position in the lives of the indigenous in the South Pacific and is intimately linked to their social, cultural and spiritual well-being. Secondly while the German colonial authorities had hoped to make large profits from the exploitation of resources in New Guinea, they encountered considerable difficulty in achieving this goal. As Brookfield (1972:1-2) argues: ... "colonialism" is a thoroughgoing, comprehensive and deliberate penetration of a local or "residentiary" system by the agents of an external system, who aim to restructure the patterns of organisation, resource use, circulation and outlook so as to bring these into a linked relationship with their own systems. Furthermore, it is evident that these international financial institutions and multi-national corporations are closely linked and controlled by the former colonial powers (Barrat Brown, 1982). What people are saying - Write a review. Instead, the contemporary expressions of colonialism are now linked to the global movement of capital and to the activities of large multinational companies. Papua New Guinea is a nation of many tribes. As already pointed out, PNG's colonial system of administration was established partly for the purposes of pacification and the enforcement of law and order. Firstly, it is argued that Papua and New Guinea is an historical artefact constructed through the processes of colonialism. New personal and group identities have been forged in order to relate to the new institutions established in different places: political groupings, commercial ventures, trade unions, and recreational and professional associations. It was not until 1959 that three indigenous members were also added to the Council, though they were not elected but appointed. They had little administrative experience and were mostly seeking adventure. The intention was to produce an educated elite for the purposes of governing the country and for providing the human resources needed for Papua and New Guinea's economic development. In PNG, the concept of development forms the basis of most social and economic policies. His historicist world-view led him to believe that capitalism was a necessary stage in the eventual enlightenment of people everywhere. The Fifth Directive in the National Constitution refers to Papua New Guinea Ways. Such a bureaucracy was considered essential for achieving the State's cohesion and the nation's identity. The same applies to the luluai and tultul system which had originated in New Guinea (Oram, 1973). To the West lies Irian Jaya, incorporated in 1961 as a new province of Indonesia, but referred to by the local "Freedom Fighters" as West Papua. They inserted considerable fear into the hearts and minds of the indigenous people, and were much despised. Unlike the previous Labor Foreign Minister, Hasluck was committed to a gradualist approach and was reluctant to offer PNG independence in the short term (Downs, 1980). www.ngo.org.pg is a related project sponsored under the same initiative. Support for self-government was especially strong among the Australian ex-servicemen who had fought during the War in Papua and New Guinea, who could see no legitimate reason why Australia should remain in a country that had vastly different cultural traditions. Its defeat simply hastened the process, leading in 1919 to a proclamation and imposition of Australian military rule in New Guinea (Reed, 1983). The opportunities they had to play an influential role in the decision-making were limited. First, there was the emerging global thinking at the time that, on moral grounds alone, all people should have the right to self-government. Dependency theory seeks to address this contradiction, but is not without its own problems. After independence, there were moves to create a synthesis between traditional and western modes of education. Many people are caught between traditional and modern societies, and in some cases people have difficulty in coping with the demands and obligations of the receding traditional society, and the demands and expectations of the emerging society. Upon independence in 1975 the new Somare Government recognised the enormous challenges it faced in constructing an indigenous system of public administration. Much of the history of PNG has been written from the dominant European view which has assumed European civilisation to mark the highest point of human development. These contradictions have not remained unrecognised by PNG policy makers. Apart from the Dutch, the English, French and Germans were also involved in the exploration of the new land (Griffin, 1978; Reed, 1983). To secure profits, the German colonial authorities even made a number of unsuccessful attempts to introduce a taxation regime in the area of the traditionally-orientated village agriculture. The surplus products and capital intensified the efforts of the colonial powers to establish new markets outside Europe, that is, for trade to extend to other parts of the world, in particular the African, Asian and Pacific regions. These demands for secession have also damaged the relationship between PNG and the Solomon Islands. The Third World countries have needed funds for development. During the colonial period, a centralised public service had been created in PNG to make a range of decisions about the infrastructure needs of the country (Turner, 1991). The terrain is very rugged and mountainous. Papua New Guinea Education System Papua New Guinea has an education system which emanates from the British and Australian education systems as the country’s colonial masters (Pau, 1993; Waiko, 1997). In Papua, the chiefs did not have the power and influence over their tribes in the manner they did in Fiji. Henningham and May (1992:1) further maintain: Hundreds have been killed, property worth millions of dollars has been destroyed or damaged, production at one of the world's largest copper and gold mines has ceased, and the political stability and integrity of the largest of the Pacific Island countries has been challenged. Prior to the amalgamation of Papua as an Australian protectorate and New Guinea as a UN Trust Territory in 1949, both colonies were administered from Canberra. The Department of Education reformed the curriculum (Papua New Guinea Department of Education, 2002), based on the Matane Report, entitled ‘A Philosophy of Education’ (Papua New Guinea Department of Education, 2003, p. 4). The rights, usage and transfer of the land is now regulated by such laws as National Forestry Policy (1990) and National Forestry Act (1991). Modernization becomes a real possibility when the rate of increase in investment overtakes the rate of increase of population. The consequences of these policy shifts have been dramatic for PNG, which has now become dependent on foreign goods. People lack the capital, technology, relevant expertise and the technical know-how. For the colonisers it can mean arrogance, vainglory, and narcissism. This study was conducted in four primary schools of Buma Yong area of Lae district of Morobe Province, PNG. The ruling group can be either similar or different in their way of life from those who are ruled. The first European visitor may have been Jorge de Meneses, who possibly landed on the island in 1526–27 while en route to the Moluccas. This fear is also expressed by a Bouganvillian: Land is our life. It can be interpreted simultaneously as a political, economic, socio-cultural and ideological phenomenon. All matters to do with internal affairs were transferred to the PNG House of Assembly, with Australia retaining the responsibility over PNG's external affairs, defence and trade. The "continuing influences" exerted by the aid donors inform the nature of development, policy programs and strategies and as such, often create great dilemmas for the recipient countries. But, in retrospect, it is clear that they had prepared the conditions for the Europeans to later settle in the country and exploit its natural resources for their own economic ends. The profit motive looms large in their thinking. It can be viewed as a form of cultural dominance which involves the substitution of the way of life of the colonised by traditions that the colonisers assume to be inherently superior. As already noted, dependency theory constitutes an antithesis to modernisation theory. Spybey (1992:5) contends: The rise of Western civilisation is the most significant factor in the concept of modernization, the dependency critique and their transcending through structuration theory. Critics of Marxism, such as Blaut (1989), do not share Marx's contention that capitalism led to colonisation. Nelson (1974:47) argues: Like many other areas which have been colonies, Papua New Guinea will inherit awkward, perhaps intractable, borders. This concept laid the foundation of a framework of economic policies that the colonial government developed (Fisk, 1966). On Ponam, contact put old forms of social organization and practice into a new context and led to creation of the new forms. Both industry and agriculture are mechanized. A continuing high level of financial assistance from the Australian government encourages this situation and has created quite dramatic opportunities for promotion for young Papua New Guinean graduates. In an effort to provide a definition, Fletcher (1976:43) notes that: ... however, "development" can mean the actualisation of our implicit potentiality, the simplest example being the pattern growth and maturation of a seed, or an initial germ cell, to the full adult form of the individual plant, or animal or human person. This system of justice and administration, based on a network of central and regional centres of power, later became the foundation for the creation of the state of Papua New Guinea. ... historically this has involved the establishment of an international division of labour, whereby Europe and North America became largely the manufacturers of the finished products and the Third World, the supplier of raw materials and cash-crops agricultural products. In addition to the creation of an administrative system, the Australian colonial powers had also established PNG's political structure. Parson's thinking has been influential in informing the modernisation theory. The Territory of New Guinea was divided into administrative units called Districts. What implications does this have for the attempts to institute democratic reforms in PNG educational administration? In particular, the Report criticised the principle of gradualism in educational development. In all, some 8,000 Australian public servants were recruited during 1949-1975 with almost half of them choosing to stay on in PNG after independence and a small number of them remaining in the country as immigrants. 1972: The NGO SIL International gives training to Ernest Kilalang and other Tolais in developing vernacular literacy materials. Papua New Guinea has been subject to many anthropological studies (for example Mead, 1931; Malinowski 1932; Mead, 1970; Strathern, 1971). They argued that the people of Papua and New Guinea were "not ready" for self-government, and that Australian interests were best served by greater economic investment in the territory (Biskup, Jinks & Nelson, 1968:128). Political independence is assumed to mark a major shift in the structure of power and authority for making such decisions. The PNG government, together with foreign companies, is, for example, mining copper in Ok Tedi (Jackson, 1982), and gold in Pogera; and is allowing the trees to be cut down for timber in Madang, Manus, West New Britain, Central and Kerema (Deklin, 1992:127). In particular, the commission was asked to look at the ways of introducing universal primary education and a more comprehensive system of secondary and tertiary education, including technical education, teacher training and medical, agricultural, and administrative education. It was claimed that the British achieved social control by denying education to Africans (Ball, 1983). Griffin (1978:xi) refers to these motives as: Concern, Careerism, Cupidity, or Didacticism, Dominion, Dividends ... Concern and Didactism allow that not all purveyors of Light were evangelists and that there were irreligious humanitarians who wanted to disperse darkness. Firstly, while it sought to accommodate the traditional patterns of leadership and perhaps allow some degree of participation of indigenous people, in the long run, it proved ineffective because in most cases the selection of the luluais and tultuls was not based on traditional leadership, but on a range of other considerations. Colonialism in PNG did not operate only through the work of the expatriate administrators and traders, but also through the work of the missionaries who went out to PNG to change the social outlook of the indigenous people. It represents a certain cultural continuity and carries a certain cultural baggage" (1983, pp 1-2). What this section has sought to demonstrate is that political independence in PNG by itself has not ended colonialism. Is the use of a plane or motor boat a "PNG way"? The arbitrary border between PNG and Indonesia demonstrates the historical construction of PNG as a nation-state and is of current political interest because of the location of the profitable giant Ok Tedi Mine (Jackson, 1984) along the border between the two countries. The political sovereignty of the traditional leaders was stripped away; as was the legitimacy of the political boundaries that had separated tribes (Parker, 1966a:197). Second, the ALP government was sympathetic to the principle of self-government, and had mobilised public opinion behind it. (Biskup, Jinks & Nelson, 1968:129). The PNG bureaucracy thus has the potential both to promote as well as to constrain democratic reforms. Spybey (1992:1) contends: For a long time I have been concerned that the sociology of development has become too compartmentalized in its deep obsession with the modernization theory - dependency theory debate. They became dependent on the state and its bureaucracy to provide both the directions of education, as well as the resources needed to deliver it to their young. They felt that they had created an economic infrastructure for the colonies, such as a railway system, which they felt were necessary for the development of the countries they occupied. They are not traditional, and should not be described and analyzed without close attention to the impact of colonization; and they are not capitalist, so they should not be described and analyzed solely in terms of capitalist forms and social relations. I want to argue that the language of development has been imported and internalised in PNG through the processes of colonialism, to the extent that most Papua New Guineans cannot imagine a political language that does not invoke development as a foundational idea in PNG politics. Also, discussions of colonialism do not always clearly distinguish between different aspects of the problem: for example, the conditions which led to the emergence of colonialism; the motives for colonial adventure; the approaches and processes of its realisation; and the effects of colonialism in terms of its benefits and problems, both for the colonisers and the colonised (Fieldhouse, 1981). Many houses still are built out of trees and sago leaves and kunai-grass. Educational planners and administrators have found it difficult to implement a hybrid system. Indeed, the categories "the colonisers" and "the colonised" are not homogenous, and should not be treated in terms that are totalising. The divisional administration and the village constable system recommended by Griffith was maintained, though it was felt that administrative work should be supported by a local council in each village. The schools were expected to teach people how to read and write so that they could understand the Bible. Critiques of these systems suggest PNG's cultures should not be described in such western terms, but should instead be viewed in their own unique contexts. This creates a situation of divided loyalties. Local Education Authorities Primary education and secondary education became free for all children up to the age of 15. Also, they have an ambiguous relationship with Australia. Despite this, colonial education very Ward effectively admitted that Australia had not done enough to ensure the development of both Papua and New Guinea. Prior to colonial occupation, its people did not regard PNG as a nation. They see themselves as people of New Ireland, Manus, East New Britain, Papuans or Highlanders. The Pacific islanders, in the words of Papua New Guinea's Ambassador to the United Nations, Mr. Renagi Lohia, "have had to run in order to remain on the same spot." For them, education was no longer a collective responsibility of the members of the community but the responsibility of a few, who were believed to possess special expertise. There is thus a dialectical relationship between the traditions that remain and the trends that are emerging. The policies concerning the need to develop a largely western education system have become institutionalised. Part of the problem related to the enormous shortage of labour, with the attempts to train the locals to work as skilled and semi-skilled workers failing on most occasions. His critical views of modernisation theory became the basis for the dependency theory, an alternative view on development studies. Ultimately, economic growth is not a goal in itself. This ideology concerning the role of the central administration continues to inform the way many Papua New Guineans think about the public service. They have become misfits. As a result, tools and utensils made of steel, such as knives, axes and guns as well as pots and pans, began to find their way into the households of the indigenous people. Malaysia has, for example, been involved in the exploitation of PNG's timber resources, clearing forests at a rapid rate, much to the consternation of indigenous environmentalists (O'Collins, 1990). The different mission denominations, namely Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Methodist, and London Missionary Society (LMS) established mission settlements, or stations. That is, they could not separate Christ's teachings from their own culture. They had to ensure that there was sufficient provision for the educational needs of pupils in their geographical area. In 1606, William Janz visited the south-east area of New Guinea. As Waiko (1993) has pointed out, the notion of a citizenship is a highly problematical one, since the primary allegiance of the people is to a tribe, and not necessarily to the nation. There will also be conclusion/reﬂ ections at the end of the chapter. It is concerned to promote economic activities designed to generate new employment in the cash economy and at the same time improve forms of subsistence and related traditional activities. As Henningham and May (1992:1) assert: If any reminder were needed of the fundamental political implications of large scale natural resource development in small island countries, the recent tragic events in Bougainville provide a graphic illustration. These materials are processed into manufactured goods and later sold back through the world market economy at extremely high costs to the "developing" countries, creating considerable financial burden on them. Even before political independence, the idea of western education became institutionalised in the PNG communities. Religious and moral education: principles and practice 1 Modernisation theory has been criticised as being Eurocentric, evolutionary and economistic in its perspective. The Indian social theorist, Nandy (1983), has developed these ideas further with the use of insights obtained from the Italian sociologist, Gramsci (1978), and the Algerian political writer, Fanon (1967). The shopping list is simple, at least where I stand--local business development; infrastructure improvement; environmental protection; human resources development; and the promotion of an ethical business culture. As trading activities became intensified, the indigenous people further accumulated Western goods as substitutes for their own. Colonists lived in a state of moral, social and economic poverty. This Agreement had stipulated that Australia was to ensure that the indigenous customs were protected; that their rights and possessions were not taken away from them; that Australia was to educate the indigenous people; and that it was to ensure that the locals participated in running the affairs of the Territory. This relationship is not only dictated by the politics of the international financial institutions but also the politics of aid. (See Map 4). This system was implemented in 1888, and represented Australia's initial involvement in Papua. The high humidity affects the possible levels of human activity. Stage 3 (the take off) in which traditional barriers are overcome, Western technology is introduced and political institutions developed. Papua New Guinea lies between 1 and 12 degrees South latitude and between 141 and 169 degrees East longitude (Hastings, 1973:1) (see [PNG] Map 1). There was no central hierarchical authority which the British could use in an effective system of governance. As O'Faircheallaigh (1992:272) suggests: Damage to land, often associated with resource exploitation, has profound social cultural and spiritual ramifications. The indigenous people provided labour, often paid for in terms of exchange of goods such as tobacco and clothes. As such, it has been represented in different forms at different times in history, and it continues to be a contested construct. Finally, the Report criticised Australia for being tardy in promoting the Territory's political development. In the ninetieth century, there were a wide variety of reasons given for colonial activity. 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