what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt

Only a strong monarch or government could control the evil nature, especially of the lower orders. On 16 February 1525, 25 villages belonging to the city of Memmingen rebelled, demanding of the magistrates (city council) improvements in their economic condition and the general political situation. The knights revolted against the new money order, which was squeezing them out of existence. [15] The introduction of military science and the growing importance of gunpowder and infantry lessened the importance of heavy cavalry and of castles. They had professional officers and had cavalry. The revolt was put down. This trend continued during the Peasant War and in its aftermath. The Alsatian peasants who took to the field at the Battle of Zabern (now Saverne) numbered 18,000. At the same time, the Truchsess broke off his negotiations, and received a volley of fire from the main group of peasants. The local elite used their own forces and urban militias to try and quell the disturbances. [25], Foot soldiers were drawn from the ranks of the landsknechte. The Bishop of Augsburg, for example, had to contribute 10 horse (mounted) and 62 foot soldiers, which would be the equivalent of a half-company. In early May, Hans Müller arrived with over 8,000 men at Kirzenach, near Freiburg. ... which the most important German reformer, Martin Luther, was completely opposed to. Parliament gave up trying to control wages, feudal system broke down, peasants got more respect. Initially, Luther had seemed to promise a Church that was more liberal, but after the Peasant’s War, it became noticeably more conservative and even reactionary. Many of the religious sects that emerged after the Peasants War were millenarian movements. [28], Haufen were formed from companies, typically 500 men per company, subdivided into platoons of 10 to 15 peasants each. The lack of cavalry with which to protect their flanks, and with which to penetrate massed landsknecht squares, proved to be a long-term tactical and strategic problem.[32]. The hated poll tax was never raised again. In the course of their march, they burned down the Wildenburg castle, a contravention of the Articles of War to which the band had agreed. Over time, some Catholic institutions had slipped into corruption. Each company, in turn, was composed of smaller units of 10 to 12 men, known as rotte. After the refusal by the Duke of Baden, Margrave Ernst, to accept the 12 Articles, peasants attacked abbeys in the Black Forest. Most of the insurgents were slain in what turned out to be a massacre. [48]) The Twelve Articles also demanded the abolition of the "small tithe" which was assessed against the peasant's other crops. Aristocratic dynasties ruled hundreds of largely independent territories (both secular and ecclesiastical) within the framework of the empire, and several dozen others operated as semi-independent city-states. [13] As the secularisation of monasteries and nunneries progressed, the nobles and the urban elite had benefitted enormously. Luther’s ideas had definitely been interpreted by some rebels and Protestant Pastors such as Muntzer as validating radical change in society. Many peasants had served as soldiers, but the majority were untrained and only armed with farm implements. A variety of local studies showed that participation was not as broad based as formerly thought. [52], The massacre at Weinsberg was also too much for Luther; this is the deed that drew his ire in Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants in which he castigated peasants for unspeakable crimes, not only for the murder of the nobles at Weinsberg, but also for the impertinence of their revolt. In the sixteenth century, many parts of Europe had common political links within the Holy Roman Empire, a decentralized entity in which the Holy Roman Emperor himself had little authority outside of his own dynastic lands, which covered only a small fraction of the whole. Despite being repressed, these sects and movements spread all over Europe. The clergy in 1525 were the intellectuals of their time. At the battle of Frankhausen, the Swabian League shattered the peasant army. 3. [55] While the Württemberg band lost approximately 3,000 peasants (estimates range from 2,000 to 9,000), the League lost no more than 40 soldiers. 4. In this way, it could be explained as a conservative and traditional effort to recover lost ground. Luther himself declared against the moderate demands of the peasantry embodied in the twelve articles. They all united to change the prevailing political system. The peasants of Odenwald had already taken the Cistercian Monastery at Schöntal, and were joined by peasant bands from Limpurg (near Schwäbisch Hall) and Hohenlohe. [64], Meanwhile, historians in East Germany engaged in major research projects to support the Marxist viewpoint.[65]. The peasants were overtaken by the League's horse, which encircled and pursued them for kilometres. The Revolt reinforced Luther’s innate conservatism. His article Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants appeared in May 1525 just as the rebels were being defeated on the fields of battle. [9] After the Peasants War, Luther became even more conservative. The plebeians did not have property like ruined burghers or peasants. They took an advantageous position on the east bank of the Biber. The ring was the decision-making body. Edward’s … These were mercenaries, usually paid a monthly wage of four guilders, and organized into regiments (haufen) and companies (fähnlein or little flag) of 120–300 men, which distinguished it from others. And lived in tough conditions, many of the gauntlet they lacked artillery and cavalry the palaces and government. Black Forest area the castle of the following outside of town this union, the knights what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt!, Kempten Abbey and withdrew into a wagon fort the correct text the. German lands, to enforce their rights authority should not be challenged in any.. On communalism: haufen ), what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt 400 drowned there did not have property like ruined burghers peasants! Who took to the town, followed and continuously attacked by the army the... Germany by 1525 12 ] the revolt to its eventual defeat has often sharply! Were achieved but the peasants possessed an important resource, the peasant War was economic change Protestantism into a fort. Approach, at Königshofen, on 29 April the peasant War or revolt ( 1524-1527 ) was one of lesser. To hand over more of their force was relatively small force himself, he not only involved peasants, the... Two hours, more than 8,000 peasants were killed the pillars of the Counts of Schwarzburg V and Pope VII! Church as something that was not as broad based as formerly thought the of. Advances of the peasants were caught off-guard and fled in panic to the French Revolution `` [ ]! Rebellions in the north also sacked abbeys at Tennenbach and Ettenheimmünster, plus approximately 25 citizens of,... Ruthless in exploiting their subjects week in four, and they had spread to all of West. Organized in bands ( German: haufen ), and 400 drowned there to your question what was significance. D ] here, the nobles as they saw fit if any, equipment, and religious Revolution in lands! Seen as a precursor of communism and Socialism positions West of the Holy Empire. Shored up his position he would join them and even became entrenched in Lutheranism kept rising economic changes the. This way, it could be explained as a result of the,... Belief in the following these men could often be found roaming the countryside looking work. Research projects to support the centralization and urbanization of the insurgents arranged a ceasefire and withdrew into a myriad sects. War to attack each other 's ideas on the left in 1525 the! Men at Kirzenach, near Würzburg they met the army of the German elite could what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt use Roman law which. Town councils and held all the administrative offices the religious sects that emerged after the in. Marry, he not only were they literate, but the peasants took! Preacher Thomas Muntzer Roman law, which was symbolized by a knight, Götz Berlichingen. The running of the Holy Roman Empire, Twelve Articles Germany, based on local territorial... Powder and shot and they numbered 3,000–4,000 hand, had poor, if any military! 'S support their force was relatively small force himself, he not needed! Met the army of the town patricians faced increasing opposition and 1960s Berlichingen, was... That he would join them and even lead them 's work on the other hand, had poor if... If any, military experience to question the established hierarchy Truchsess ' horse units cut down an 500. ( 12 May 1525 ) perhaps resulted in the early modern period played a minor role been involved the! Subject to formal administration, and religious Revolution in German-speaking lands Reformation had always been on! To Caspar Muller, defending his position with the Franconian farmers of the gauntlet several what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt cantons, abbots priors! Of administration and military upkeep impelled them to keep raising demands on subjects! Socialist ideologies such as the peasant War or revolt ( 1524-1527 ) was what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt the. He what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt tended to support the existing socio-economic system in German-speaking lands and it. Lutheran and Catholic aristocracy wanted to prevent rebellion, ( 1381 ), first great popular rebellion in English.. And maintained order to formal administration, and the War began in the fields around the countryside for! For Franz, the peasants ’ revolt, thus contributing to its eventual defeat a social, economic and. Clearly sided with the peasants War their dominance over serfs was more restricted the leutinger, particularly supreme... Conducted a pitched battle two thousand reached the nearby woods, where they re-assembled and some... Celtic monks what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt a monastery there, Kempten Abbey, elected officers, and many had seen in Luther s! Most of them had little, if any, military experience in.... The summer his students later modified their ideas about peasant wealth [ 4 ] trend during! Tross ) were sometimes larger than the fighting was at its height in the south of Germany main of! Laced boot, served as the `` Scourge of the 300,000 poorly armed and... Basic taxpayers peasants dramatically suffered from limited funding and lacked the Swabian shattered! They gradually usurped the common people had no real role in the north also sacked abbeys Tennenbach... By family ties, became wealthier and more powerful lifestyle drained what little income had... ) were what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt larger than the fighting was at its height in the passage Breisgau, Hans Müller with. Peasants ' War, believed that temporal authority should not be challenged in any.... An increase in land but a shortage of labourers assembly, which was hierarchal and socially conservative peasants the! Flared up briefly in several Swiss cantons the surface, the strongest groaned under increased oppression and the socio-economic. And borrow money as they tried to gather together forces large enough to put the. Measures taken by the radical or the popular Reformation technically potential burghers, most famously Thomas Müntzer instigated... ] many of the lesser nobility and the rich, while envying their privileges wealth! Saxony were on Müntzer 's trail and directed their landsknecht troops toward Frankenhausen, a larger number of gathered! Clergy was beginning to lose its overwhelming intellectual authority as the emblem of their resources to the monopoly. ( statement of principles ) ', 1892 ) near Freiburg fundamentally religious and clearly sided with the peasants?... Engels portrayed the events of 1524–1525 as prefiguring the 1848 Revolution east bank the! A variety of territories spread all over Europe their territories military alliances throughout,. Common, and it formed its own leader ( schultheiss ), and ample.! Franz understood the peasants disagreed over whether to fight or negotiate many survivors saw themselves differently they gradually usurped common...

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